Collective and personal protective equipment in electrical installations
To ensure electrical safety used alone or in combination with each other, the following technical ways and means:
• protective earth;
Protective grounding intentional electric’s unity with the earth or its equivalent current-carrying metal parts, can be under tension.
Grounding is done through a natural, artificial or mixed earth rods.
Vanishing — it intentional electric’connection with zero protective conductor non-conductive metal parts, which may be under tension (the housing of electrical equipment, cable design, steel pipes, etc).
The purpose of grounding the neutral is to eliminate the risk of injury to a person in the breakdown of the body of the equipment single phase power. This goal is achieved by quick disconnect overcurrent protection portion of the network, on which there was a closure on the case.
• the equipotential bonding;
• had voltage;
Low voltage (no more 42 In) used to supply power to the power consumers small power: manual elektrifizierung tool, portable lamps, lamps of local lighting, alarm,
In areas without high and special risk use portable lights with voltage 42 In, and to work in areas with high and extreme hazard, in close quarters, uncomfortable position, when there is danger of contact with working in metal, well-grounded parts, used portable lamps of local lighting with voltage 12 In, In the premises, in the workplace, where under the terms of the security of labour power can not be fed directly from the mains voltage up to 1000 In, it is necessary to apply a distribution or step-down transformers with secondary voltage 42 And below.
• safety shutdown;
Safety shutdown protection, quick steps, providing automatic disconnection of the electrical installation at occurrence of danger of electric shock of a man. This danger can occur when the closure phase on the case, the decrease in the insulation resistance of the network below the appropriate level, and if you do touch the person directly to the conductive part, what is energized.
Safety shutdown is used in cases, when other protective measures (ground, vanishing) unreliable, they are difficult to implement (in the conditions of permafrost), expensive or in cases, when the security service is required to possess (in mines, Kar’erh), and mobile electrical. The most common protective equipment off in chains to 1000 In. Protective switching-off of duty’mandatory for manual power tools.
Basic requirements, which must match equipment breaker: high sensitivity, a little time off, the selectivity of the action, the ability to exercise self-control health, reliability.
• insulation distributors;
For protection against touching the parts, under voltage, also used double insulation — electrical insulation, consisting of working and additional insulation.
Working insulation — insulation of live parts of electrical. Additional insulation is achieved easier manufacture of the housing of insulating material (appliances).
• protecting devices;
Enclosing means are designed for portable temporary fence live parts and the prevention of erroneous operations of the switching equipment. These include insulating pads, caps, portable grounding (earthing), shields, cells, posters.
Protective devices are as solid, and net. Solid protective device in the form of covers or lids used in the electrical voltage to 1000 In. Mesh enclosing the device in the electrical voltage to 1000 In and above.
• warning, lock, safety signs;
• protective equipment and safety devices.
To protect people from electrocution due to damaged insulation and switching the voltage on conductive parts of machines, mechanisms, tools and the like used protective ground or vanishing.
By connecting the neutral point of the source of all non-conductive parts of the equipment, single-phase circuit to the housing is transformed into a single-phase short circuit, which leads to triggering of an overcurrent protection.
Protective earthing and neutral earthing is performed with the aim:
• ensure the normal modes of the unit;
• the safety of people in the break isolation network
• protection of electrical equipment against overvoltage;
• protect people from static electricity.
Warning labels, posters and devices used to attract attention of workers to the immediate danger, orders and permits certain actions to ensure security, and obtain the necessary information.
All safety signs are installed in places, superior surface’is associated with potential danger to operating, and production equipment, what is the source of such danger.
Warning labels, the posters are divided into four groups:
Electrical safety devices designed to protect personnel, maintenance of electrical installation. For the purpose of electrical safety devices are divided into soluvel (dielectric gloves, bots, galoshes, the tool with insulating handles, etc), cladding (portable fencing, grounding, etc) and measures (belt, protective goggles, etc). Soluvel means during operation periodically experienced.
During the operation to prevent the occurrence of electrical accidents is the use of special means of individual protection, which are divided into basic and advanced.
To main means of electrical safety include remedies, insulation which withstands a long period of time, operating voltage and allow touching live often, under voltage.
These tools reliably isolate and withstand a voltage, equipment, offer the opportunity to work with them.
In electrical installations with voltage up to 1000 In the basic means of electrical safety include:
• insulating rod;
• insulating or electrical pliers;
• voltage indicators;
• dielectric gloves;
• tools with insulated handles.
Additional means of electrical protection in electrical installations up to 1000 Owned:
• dielectric overshoes, mats;
• portable grounding;
• protecting devices;
• posters and safety signs.
Dielectric galoshes and overshoes protect working on the voltage step and are used during weightlifting, dog.
Additional electrical safety devices used only with the basic.