Computers are well known to represent a completely new branch of science, the first of them having appeared less than 60 years ago. Although still new, these machines are already bringing about a real revolution in science, technology, statistics and automatic control.

The reason for this is in the fact a mathematical formula can be found for almost of all scientific and technical problems. They can be solved without a computer but it would require millions of arithmetical operations. No wonder that many problems of exceptional importance remained unsolved for a long time, the volume of the calculations required being above human possibilities.

With a high speed electronic computer can carry out several thousand arithmetical operaiions in one second. A calculation, which would have taken several years of intense human work in the past, is now done in a few minutes or hours.



A number of various complicated2 problems have already been solved with the help of


The principle of this wonderful machine lies in counting electric impulses. Numbers are represented as a sequence of such impulses, and a radio-technical scheme counts them carrying out addition, subtraction, multiplication and division all higher mathematical calculations being reduced to these four operations.

There are two main classes of computing equipment: analogue and digital. They work or different principles and yield different results. The digital computers can perform a much broader range of functions than the analogue computers The application includes all forms of atomic control in science and industry and first of all in space exploration, in automatic piloting navigation and landing of space vehicles. Computer programming is the progress of the future. Computers will guide the first spaceships to Venus, Mars and other planets.

The state gives energetic support to the development of computer engineering. The Academy of Sciences established a network’ of computing centres all over the country These centres work out new numerical methods, develop new ways and means of automated programming work. They solve practical problems for various institutes and develop new types of electronic computers.