Direct memory access

During the implementation of the MP system working program is often a need for information exchange between peripherals and RAM. This exchange can be carried out with the mediation of MP, which, interrupting the execution of working program, during one cycle, receives information from the peripheral device (from RAM), and in the next cycle transfers the information to RAM (in a peripheral device). Internal registers commands, […]


Microprocessor systems can exchange information with a large number and diverse set of peripherals. These include displays on cathode ray tubes for data graphic display, printers, panel key control, digital indicators, the tape, disks, drums, relay switches, stepper motors, digital-to-analog (for output) and analog-to-digital (to enter) converters, etc. To communicate with these […]

The reliability and operational life MP

Reliability, t. e. the ability for a long time to work in certain conditions without failure, the MP is almost the same, as in the IP low and high degree of integration, and significantly higher, than equipment, similar to MP functional complexity, uniting in its composition of hundreds of IP. Generally speaking, the reliability of the semiconductor (monolithic) integrated circuits not affected directly […]

The bit capacity and addressable memory

The bit MP or, that the same thing, the length of its information word shows, how many binary digits (bit) information can be simultaneously processed by the processor. On the width of, obviously, depends on the accuracy of calculations. So, 4 discharge ensure maximum accuracy 12,5%, 8 discharges — 0,8%, 12 discharges—0.05% and 16 discharges -0,003%. In addition to the bit precision in some cases determines the performance, as […]

Power consumption, the dimensions and weight of the microprocessor

Important questions, associated with the use of, is this a feature of MP, as power consumption. A significant portion of the volume and mass of a large class of devices, performed on integrated circuits, is the power source. The transition of IP from small-and medium-scale integration on a BIS MP will allow, maintaining performance, more than half the power consumption, dimensions and weight, that would significantly expand the possibilities […]

The performance of microprocessors

In the most General sense, the speed MP, as well, as with any digital computing means, is defined as the average execution speed of a specific algorithm, teams which is a mixture of, reflecting the specific class of tasks. Mixture for various classes of problems are prepared on the basis of statistical generalizations commands all characteristic of this class of algorithms. There are, for example, a mixture of Gibson, with the help of […]

Characteristics of microprocessors as large-scale integrated circuits

The presence of MP element and instrument properties determine the composition of the characterizing parameters. The system parameters or the characteristics of the MP, the combination of which determines the most efficient area of use and features of the development of systems based on it, needs, obviously, include features, the distinctive electronic digital computing devices, and integrated circuits. The following are the main characteristics of MP and their […]

Development of scheme elektricno structure elektricno printsipovo

Diagram of the electrical structural (code E1) diagram, identifies major functional parts of the product, their purpose and interrelation. These plans develop into product design stages, prior to the development of schemes of other types, and use them for General familiarization with the product. The structural diagram of the electrical represent all major functional parts of the product (elements, devices and functional groups) s osnovnye vzaimosvâzi […]

The concept of the IPU closed and open type

In everyday life we are faced everywhere with the office: worker-controlled machine, teacher — students, the conductor — orchestra, the programmer — the computer and the progress of the program. Remember the words of the nursery rhyme: "To drive ships, to take off into the sky one should know many things, need a lot to be able…» Start, need to know: why is management of? For example, pilot, sitting behind the controls of an airplane, […]

The advantages and disadvantages of different types of sensors

 Inductive sensors are widely used in machinery, food, textile and other industries. They are most effectively used as limit switches in the automatic lines and machines, as inductive sensors work only on metal and not sensitive to other materials. Inductive sensor – this is primarily contactless switch, which contains no moving parts and is virtually […]